Advances in Brain Imaging by John M. Morihisa

By John M. Morihisa

Albany clinical university, Albany, new york. bargains clinicians and researchers better knowing of the speculation and perform of mind imaging in psychiatry. studies purposes to such problems as melancholy, obsessive-compulsive illness, and schizophrenia. Softcover. DNLM: psychological problems - prognosis.

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1992; Buchsbaum 1990; Taylor 1996). Hypofrontality is not, however, an invariant feature of schizophrenia (Gur and Gur 1995) and is much more commonly observed when patients are engaged in a cognitive task that activates the frontal lobes in normal subjects (Carter et al. 1998). Both medial and lateral hypofrontality have been reported in schizophrenia in both resting and activation studies, with most findings localizing to the DLPFC and the ACC. Since the vast majority of these studies were conducted at rest or predated the introduction of cognitive neuroscience methodology into psychiatric research, the relationship of altered DLPFC and ACC function to cognitive disability in schizophrenia has been unclear.

In a study of the relationship between regional brain activity and the symptoms of schizophrenia, resting regional cerebral blood flow in the ACC correlated with patients’ levels of disorganization (Liddle et al. 1992). As with the early resting studies suggesting impaired DLPFC function, these resting studies do not speak to the functional significance of impaired ACC activity in schizophrenia. A number of studies have examined ACC activity in schizophrenia during cognitive activation. During a single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) study in which unmedicated subjects performed the Tower of London task (a complex planning and problem-solving task), schizophrenic patients showed decreased activity in medial frontal cortex, probably the Cognitive Neuroscience 41 ACC (Andreasen et al.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 7(4):511– 522, 1995 Maas LC, Lukas SE, Kaufman MJ, et al: Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activation during cue-induced cocaine craving. Am J Psychiatry 155:124–126, 1998 Mannisto PT, Kaakkola S: Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT): biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacology, and clinical efficacy of the new selective COMT inhibitors. Pharmacol Rev 51(4):593–628, 1999 Manoach DS, Press DZ, Thangaraj V, et al: Schizophrenic subjects activate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a working memory task, as measured by fMRI.

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