By Dragan Poljak
This article combines the basics of electromagnetics with numerical modeling to take on a huge diversity of present electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) difficulties, together with issues of lightning, transmission strains, and grounding platforms. It units forth a high-quality beginning within the fundamentals prior to advancing to really expert issues, and permits readers to increase their very own EMC computational versions for functions in either learn and undefined.
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105), one has Ht1 Ál À Ht2 Ál ¼ Js Ál ð2:106Þ The length Ál of the sides are arbitrarily small so that Ht may be uniformly assumed. The rest of the integration path is effectively reduced to zero length, that is, Ht1 À Ht2 ¼ Js ð2:107Þ where Js is a surface current density in amperes per meter width ﬂowing along the boundary. 7 Region 1 Magnetic ﬂux density at the boundary between two different media. With the direction information included, where ~ n is the unit vector normal to the surface, ~2 Þ ¼ ~ ~1 À H ~ Js nxðH ð2:108Þ There is a discontinuity of the tangential ﬁeld at the boundary between two regions equal to any surface current density that may exist on the boundary.
Many practical problems can be handled by solving one wave equation without reference to the other, so that only a single boundary-value problem in a single vector variable remains. 91) are the equation of motion of electromagnetic waves in free space. The velocity of wave propagation is the velocity of light, TEAM LinG 26 FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY 1 c ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ me ð2:92Þ where c ¼ 3 Â 108 m=s, approximately. 8 BOUNDARY RELATIONSHIPS FOR DISCONTINUITIES IN MATERIAL PROPERTIES An electromagnetic ﬁeld may occur in a material medium usually characterized by its constitutive parameters conductivity s, permeability m, and permittivity e.
53) is often used in the analysis of solid state devices. 5 OHM’S LAW The conservation of charge in a continuous medium is expressed by the equation of continuity qr ¼0 r~ Jþ qt ð2:54Þ The current density ~ J is considered to be stationary if there is no accumulation of charge density at any point. 55) represents the ﬁeld equivalent of Kirchhoff’s current law stating that the net current leaving a junction of several conductors is zero. TEAM LinG 20 FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY The expression which relates the current density and electric ﬁeld at any point within the conducting material is ~ J ¼ s~ E ð2:56Þ where s is the electrical conductivity of the particular material.